GEOGRAPHY | Eastern European Masks | A Portal to Folklore and Traditions

by Second Nature on September 24, 2023


Eastern European masks encapsulate a myriad of traditions, folklore, and ritualistic practices, reflecting the rich cultural diversity and historical tapestry of the region. These masks, integral to various ceremonies and celebrations, offer a glimpse into the distinct identities and spiritual beliefs of Eastern European societies.

1. Bulgaria: 

  • Kukeri Masks: Utilized in traditional Bulgarian rituals to ward off evil spirits, these masks are worn during the annual Kukeri festival, characterized by elaborate dances and loud noises. Purpose: The aim is to banish malevolent entities and ensure prosperity, health, and a good harvest for the community.

2. Czech Republic: 

  • Carodejnice Masks: Worn during the Walpurgis Night celebrations, these masks often depict witches and are used in ceremonial bonfires representing the burning of witches. Purpose: They symbolize the end of winter and the victory of spring, driving away the darkness and bringing forth light.

3. Russia: 

  • Maslenitsa Masks: Employed during the traditional Slavic holiday of Maslenitsa, these masks represent various characters, both human and animal, and are worn in dances and processions. Purpose: They signify the resurrection of nature and are intended to revive the ancestral connection with the cycle of life and death.

4. Romania: 

  • Capra (The Goat) Masks: Integral to Romanian winter traditions, these masks depict goats and are worn during dances symbolizing death and resurrection. Purpose: These masks symbolize the death of the old year and the birth of the new one, heralding renewal and fertility.

5. Poland: 

  • Głodne Kobiety (Hungry Women) Masks: Worn during the annual Dziady (Forefathers’ Eve) festival, these masks depict mythical creatures and are involved in ritual dances. Purpose: They are believed to ensure protection from evil spirits and to honor the spirits of the ancestors, maintaining a harmonious balance between the living and the deceased.

6. Ukraine: 

  • Malanka Masks: Representing various animals, mythological beings, and historical characters, these masks are an essential part of the Malanka festival, celebrating the New Year by the Julian calendar. Purpose: They signify renewal, unity, and the cyclical nature of life, reinforcing societal bonds and the connection with nature and ancestry.

7. Slovakia: 

  • Fasiangy Masks: Donned during the Fasiangy carnival season, these masks typically represent animals, mythical creatures, and traditional characters and are worn in parades and dances. Purpose: They embody the festive spirit of the carnival, symbolizing fertility, prosperity, and the triumphant arrival of spring.


The diverse and vibrant masks of Eastern Europe serve as powerful symbols of the region's folklore, traditions, and spiritual beliefs. From the rejuvenating Malanka masks of Ukraine to the mystical Carodejnice masks of the Czech Republic, each mask tells a unique story, reflecting the cultural richness and historical depth of Eastern Europe. The enduring presence of these masks underscores the importance of ancestral wisdom, communal unity, and the perpetual dance between the natural and the supernatural in shaping the identities of Eastern European societies.